Glaciers are a unique part of the Earth's geographic crust, where solid atmospheric precipitation is transformed into ice after accumulation. They are the largest reservoirs of freshwater and most important resource.
Modern glaciation is not equaly distributed among different river basins. Glaciers in Georgia are mainly concentrated in the Enguri, Rioni, Kodori and Tergi river basins, where peaks above 3500 meters are located. 35.9% of their total number and 62.8% of the total area belong to the Enguri river basin.
According to the 2015 inventory research of the Caucasus glaciers, the quantity of glaciers in Georgia is 541, which occupy 376.3 km2.
It was established that the area of glaciations and the quantity of glaciers in Georgia has decreased and this decrease is more intense in Eastern Georgia than in Western Georgia.
Degradation of the glaciers is an effective indicator of the ongoing climate change. To promote the sustainable development of the country, it is necessary to develop a strategy for adaptation to glacial disasters and implementation of mitigation measures in vulnerable mountainous regions.